List of Scientific Studies on Low Carb Ketogenic Diet
Scientific Studies on Keto

A List of Scientific Studies and Research on Low Carb High Fat Diet

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When it comes to achieving and maintaining your health, there is a constant struggle to find a diet that fits perfectly with our needs and goals. It’s not uncommon for new fad diets to come and go every single year.

One dangerous trend that seems to apply to most of these “fashion diets” is the lack of studies proving their worth. However, the keto diet has actually been scientifically proven to have many benefits for health and weight loss. Keto has gained a huge amount of traction and publicity in the recent years.

With the current scientific data and research available, it has become apparent that the ketogenic diet not only offers a wide array of benefits, but it’s also a safe and reliable diet that can be followed for a long time.

We also included a list of health benefits of the keto diet in this ketogenic diet for beginners guide as well as the growing number of keto success stories we have received.

In order to dispel any possible doubts, we have decided to put together a short list of studies that prove the true value and scientific facts of the ketogenic diet. If you love science, dig into these studies and learn more about them.

Group 1: Studies that focus specifically on keto diet

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  1. A Critique of Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Weight Reduction Regimens (Council on Foods and Nutrition of the American Medical Association, 1973) – Source
  2. Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. (Bueno et al., 2013) – Source
  3. Ketogenic Diet for Obesity: Friend or Foe? (Paoli, 2014) – Source
  4. Ketosis, ketogenic diet and food intake control: a complex relationship (Paoli et al., 2015) – Source
  5. Fat-Free Mass Changes During Ketogenic Diets and the Potential Role of Resistance Training (Tinsley and Willoughby, 2016) – Source
  6. International society of sports nutrition position stand: diets and body composition (Aragon et al., 2017) – Source
  7. Composition of weight lost during short-term weight reduction. Metabolic responses of obese subjects to starvation and low-calorie ketogenic and nonketogenic diets (Yang and Itallie, 1976) – Source
  8. Protein sparing during treatment of obesity: ketogenic versus non-ketogenic very low calorie diet (Vazquez and Adibi, 1992) – Source
  9. The effects of a high-protein, low-fat, ketogenic diet on adolescents with morbid obesity: body composition, blood chemistries, and sleep abnormalities (Willi et al., 1998) – Source
  10. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women (Volek et al., 2004) – Source
  11. Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite, and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum (Johnstone et al., 2008) – Source
  12. Resistance training in overweight women on a ketogenic diet conserved lean body mass while reducing body fat (Jabekk et al., 2010) – Source
  13. Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts (Paoli et al., 2012) – Source
  14. The effect of weight loss by ketogenic diet on the body composition, performance-related physical fitness factors and cytokines of Taekwondo athletes (Rhyu and Cho, 2014) – Source
  15. The effects of ketogenic dieting on skeletal muscle and fat mass (Rauch et al., 2014) – Source
  16. Short-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet interventional weight loss program versus hypocaloric diet in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (Goday et al., 2016) – Source
  17. Very-low-calorie ketogenic diet with aminoacid supplement versus very low restricted-calorie diet for preserving muscle mass during weight loss: a pilot double-blind study (Merra et al., 2016) – Source
  18. A Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet Combined with 6-Weeks of Crossfit Training Improves Body Composition and Performance (Gregory et al., 2017) – Sources
  19. The Effects of Ketogenic Dieting on Body Composition, Strength, Power, and Hormonal Profiles in Resistance Training Males (Wilson et al., 2017) – Sources
  20. Efficacy and safety of very-low-calorie ketogenic diet: a double blind randomized crossover study (Colica et al., 2017) – Source
  21. Capacity for Moderate Exercise in Obese Subjects after Adaptation to a Hypocaloric, Ketogenic Diet (Phinney et al., 1980) – Source
  22. Ketogenic diets and physical performance (Phinney, 2004) – Source
  23. Acute nutritional ketosis: implications for exercise performance and metabolism (Cox and Clarke, 2014) – Source
  24. Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference and Thereby Endurance Performance in Athletes (Cox et al., 2016) – Source
  25. The Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Exercise Metabolism and Physical Performance in Off-Road Cyclists (Zajac et al., 2014) – Source
  26. Metabolic characteristics of keto-adapted ultra-endurance runners (Volek et al., 2016) – Source
  27. Ketogenic diet benefits body composition and well-being but not performance in a pilot case study of New Zealand endurance athletes (Zinn et al., 2017) – Source
  28. Clinical Aspects of the Ketogenic Diet (Hartman and Vining, 2007) – Source
  29. A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet to treat type 2 diabetes (Yancy et al., 2005) – Source
  30. Beneficial effects of ketogenic diet in obese diabetic subjects (Dashti et al., 2007) – Source
  31. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (Westman et al., 2008) – Source
  32. Effect of low-calorie versus low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet in type 2 diabetes (Hussain et al., 2012) – Source
  33. An Online Intervention Comparing a Very Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet and Lifestyle Recommendations Versus a Plate Method Diet in Overweight Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial (Saslow et al., 2017) – Source
  34. Effects of Ketogenic Diets on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies (Kosinski and Jornayvaz, 2017) – Source
  35. The AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Is Involved in the Regulation of Ketone Body Production by Astrocytes (Blázquez et al., 1999) – Source
  36. The calorically restricted ketogenic diet, an effective alternative therapy for malignant brain cancer (Zhou et al., 2007) – Source
  37. Role of ketogenic metabolic therapy in malignant glioma: A systematic review (Winter et al., 2017) – Source
  38. A Nutritional Perspective of Ketogenic Diet in Cancer: A Narrative Review (Oliveira et al., 2017) – Source
  39. Beneficial effects of ketogenic diets for cancer patients: a realist review with focus on evidence and confirmation (Klement, 2017) – Source
  40. Systematic review: isocaloric ketogenic dietary regimes for cancer patients (Erickson et al., 2017) – Source
  41. Assessing the Role of the Ketogenic Diet as a Metabolic Therapy in Cancer: Is it Evidence Based? (Macias and Sharpe, 2017) – Source
  42. Pleiotropic effects of nutritional ketosis: Conceptual framework for keto-adaptation as a breast cancer therapy (Hyde et al., 2017) – Source
  43. A Multicenter Study of the Efficacy of the Ketogenic Diet (Vining et al., 1998) – Source
  44. Ketogenic diet for the treatment of refractory epilepsy in children: A systematic review of efficacy (Lefevre and Aronson, 2000) – Source
  45. Fasting versus Gradual Initiation of the Ketogenic Diet: A Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial of Efficacy (Bergqvist et al., 2005) – Source
  46. Efficacy of the Ketogenic Diet as a Treatment Option for Epilepsy: Meta-analysis (Henderson et al., 2006) – Source
  47. The ketogenic diet: From molecular mechanisms to clinical effects (Freeman et al., 2006) – Source
  48. The Neuropharmacology of the Ketogenic Diet (Hartman et al., 2007) – Source
  49. The ketogenic diet for the treatment of childhood epilepsy: a randomised controlled trial (Neal et al., 2008) – Source
  50. Ketogenic diet for treatment of epilepsy (Rogovik and Goldman, 2010) – Source
  51. The ketogenic diet: metabolic influences on brain excitability and epilepsy (Lutas and Yellen, 2013) – Source
  52. Is Ketogenic Diet Truly Effective in Mitochondrial Epilepsy? (Finsterer and Kothari et al., 2014) – Source
  53. Dietary and Medication Adjustments to Improve Seizure Control in Patients Treated With the Ketogenic Diet (Selter et al., 2014) – Source
  54. Ketogenic diet in adolescents and adults with epilepsy (Nei et al., 2014) – Source
  55. Ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments for epilepsy (Martin et al., 2016) – Source
  56. A randomized controlled trial of the ketogenic diet in refractory childhood epilepsy (Lambrechts et al., 2016) – Source
  57. Impact of a Modified Ketogenic Diet on Seizure Activity, Biochemical Markers, Anthropometrics and Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Adults with Epilepsy (Schuchmann et al., 2017) – Source
  58. How does the ketogenic diet induce anti-seizure effects? (Rho, 2017) – Source
  59. Efficacy of ketogenic diet in resistant myoclono-astatic epilepsy: A french multicenter retrospective study (de Saint-Martin et al., 2017) – Source
  60. The role for ketogenic diets in epilepsy and status epilepticus in adults (Williams et al., 2017) – Source
  61. Long-term effects of a ketogenic diet in obese patients (Dashti et al., 2004) – Source
  62. Neuroprotective and disease-modifying effects of the ketogenic diet (Gasior et al., 2006) – Source
  63. Timeline of changes in appetite during weight loss with a ketogenic diet (Nymo et al., 2017) – Source
  64. Ketogenic diet in migraine: rationale, findings and perspectives (Barbanti et al., 2017) – Source
  65. The neuroprotective properties of calorie restriction, the ketogenic diet, and ketone bodies (Maalouf et al., 2009) – Source
  66. A Ketogenic Diet Favorably Affects Serum Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Disease in Normal-Weight Men (Sharman et al., 2002) – Source
  67. A Ketogenic Diet Extends Longevity and Healthspan in Adult Mice (Roberts et al., 2017) – Source
  68. Ketogenic Diet Reduces Midlife Mortality and Improves Memory in Aging Mice (Newman et al., 2017) – Source
  69.  An 8-Week, Low Carbohydrate, High Fat, Ketogenic Diet Enhanced Exhaustive Exercise Capacity in Mice Part 2: Effect on Fatigue Recovery, Post-Exercise Biomarkers and Anti-Oxidation Capacity (Huang et al., 2018) – Source
  70. A Ketogenic Diet Reduces Central Obesity and Serum Insulin in Women with Ovarian or Endometrial Cancer (Cohen et al., 2018) – Source
  71.  A Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet Reduces Body Mass Without Compromising Performance in Powerlifting and Olympic Weightlifting Athletes (Greene et al., 2018) – Source
  72. Ketogenic diets attenuate cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase gene expression in multiple sclerosis (Bock et al., 2018) – Source
  73. The Potential Use of a Ketogenic Diet in Pancreatobiliary Cancer Patients After Pancreatectomy (Ok et al., 2018) – Source
  74. Ketogenic diet acts on body remodeling and microRNAs expression profile (Cannataro et al., 2018) – Source
  75. Two-Week Exclusive Supplementation of Modified Ketogenic Nutrition Drink Reserves Lean Body Mass and Improves Blood Lipid Profile in Obese Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial (Choi et al., 2018) – Source
  76. Effects of Ketone Bodies on Endurance Exercise (Sansone et al., 2018) – Source
  77. The emerging role of ketogenic diets in cancer treatment (Klement, 2018) – Source
  78. Ketogenic diet increases mitochondria volume in the liver and skeletal muscle without altering oxidative stress markers in rats (Parry et al., 2018) –  Source
  79. The association between diet and mood: A systematic review of current literature (Arab et al., 2018) – Source
  80. Effect of A Very Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet on Food and Alcohol Cravings, Physical and Sexual Activity, Sleep Disturbances, and Quality of Life in Obese Patients (Castro et al., 2018) – Source
  81. Implementing a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet to manage type 2 diabetes mellitus (Westman et al., 2018) – Source
  82. Use of cooking oils in a 2:1 ratio classical ketogenic diet for intractable pediatric epilepsy: Long-term effectiveness and tolerability (Lee et al., 2018) – Source
  83. Favorable Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Physical Function, Perceived Energy, and Food Cravings in Women with Ovarian or Endometrial Cancer: A Randomized, Controlled Trial (Cohen et al., 2018) – Source
  84. Low-fat versus ketogenic diet in Parkinson’s disease: A pilot randomized controlled trial (Phillips et al., 2018) – Source
  85. Nutritional Ketosis for Weight Management and Reversal of Metabolic Syndrome (Gershuni et al., 2018) – Source
  86. Ketogenic diet for schizophrenia: Nutritional approach to antipsychotic treatment (Włodarczyk et al., 2018) – Source
  87. Effect of Ketogenic Diet on Motor Functions and Daily Living Activities of Children With Multidrug-Resistant Epilepsy: A Prospective Study (Cubukcu et al., 2018) – Source
  88. Ketogenic diet as a metabolic therapy for mood disorders: Evidence and developments (Brietzke et al., 2018) – Source
  89. Feasibility and efficacy data from a ketogenic diet intervention in Alzheimer’s disease (Taylor et al., 2017) – Source
  90. Ketogenic diet: A very low-carbohydrate and high-fat ketogenic diet has proven to be very effective for rapid weight loss (Masood & Uppaluri, 2019) – Source
  91. The Ketogenic Diet: Evidence for Optimism but High-Quality Research Needed (Ludwig, 2019) – Source
  92. Ketogenesis activates metabolically protective γδ T cells in visceral adipose tissue (Goldberg et al., 2020) – Source
  93. Beneficial effects of the ketogenic diet on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A comprehensive review of the literature (Watanabe et al., 2020) – Source
  94. MRI estimated changes in visceral adipose tissue and liver fat fraction in patients with obesity during a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet compared to a standard low-calorie diet (Cunha et al., 2020) – Source
  95. Impact of ketosis on appetite regulation-a review (Deemer et al., 2020) – Source
  96. Effect of a ketogenic diet on hepatic steatosis and hepatic mitochondrial metabolism in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (Luukkonen et al., 2020) – Source
  97. Use of Perampanel and a Ketogenic Diet in Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia: A Case Report (Daida et al., 2020) – Source
  98. Ketogenic therapy in neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders: From mice to men (Kraeuter et al., 2020) – Source
  99. Systematic review of ketogenic diet use in adult patients with status epilepticus (Mahmoud et al., 2020) – Source
  100. Beneficial Effects of Ketogenic Diet on Phosphofructokinase Deficiency (Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII) (Similä et al., 2020) – Source
  101. Effects of a ketogenic diet in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome. (Paoli et al., 2020) – Source
  102. Ketogenic diet in cancer therapy (Webster et al., 2018) – Source 
  103. Nutritional ketosis as an intervention to relieve astrogliosis: Possible therapeutic applications in the treatment of neurodegenerative and neuroprogressive disorders (Morris et al., 2020) – Source
  104. Very Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet: A Safe and Effective Tool for Weight Loss in Patients With Obesity and Mild Kidney Failure (Bruci et al., 2020) – Source
  105. Treating binge eating and food addiction symptoms with low-carbohydrate Ketogenic diets: a case series (Carmen et al., 2020) – Source
  106. Ketogenic Diet for the Treatment and Prevention of Dementia: A Review (Davis et al., 2020) – Source
  107. Safety and Effectiveness of the Prolonged Treatment of Children with a Ketogenic Diet (Ruiz et al., 2020) – Source
  108. Ketogenic diets and protective mechanisms in epilepsy, metabolic disorders, cancer, neuronal loss, and muscle and nerve degeneration (Li et al., 2020) – Source
  109. Ketogenic diets in medical oncology: a systematic review with focus on clinical outcomes (Klement et al., 2020) – Source
  110. Ketogenic Diet Potentiates Electrical Stimulation-Induced Peripheral Nerve Regeneration after Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Rats (Li et al., 2020) – Source
  111. Ketogenic diet and fasting diet as Nutritional Approaches in Multiple Sclerosis (NAMS): protocol of a randomized controlled study (Bahr et al., 2020) – Source 
  112. Ketogenic Diet for Refractory Childhood Epilepsy: Beyond Seizures Control, the Experience of a Portuguese Pediatric Centre (Romão et al., 2019) – Source
  113. Effects of Very Low Calorie Ketogenic Diet on the Orexinergic System, Visceral Adipose Tissue, and ROS Production (Valenzano et al., 2019) – Source
  114. Modified ketogenic diet is associated with improved cerebrospinal fluid biomarker profile, cerebral perfusion, and cerebral ketone body uptake in older adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease: a pilot study (Neth et al., 2020) – Source
  115. Ketogenic diet activates protective γδ T cell responses against influenza virus infection (Goldberg et al., 2019) – Source
  116. Cognitive Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Neurocognitive Impairment in Adults Aging With HIV: A Pilot Study (Morrison et al., 2019) – Source
  117. Efficacy and safety of very low calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) in patients with overweight and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis (Castellana et al., 2019) – Source
  118. Effects of the low carbohydrate, high fat diet on glycemic control and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes: experience from a community-based cohort (Ahmed et al., 2020) – Source
  119. [Ketogenic Diet and its Evidence-Based Therapeutic Implementation in Endocrine Diseases]. (Stocker et al., 2019) – Source
  120. Consideration of Ketogenic Metabolic Therapy as a Complementary or Alternative Approach for Managing Breast Cancer (Seyfried et al., 2020) – Source

Group 2: Studies that focus on low-carb, high-fat diet, or just low-carb diets

  1. A Critique of Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Weight Reduction Regimens (Council on Foods and Nutrition of the American Medical Association, 1973) – Source
  2. Atkins and other low-carbohydrate diets: hoax or an effective tool for weight loss? (Astrup et al., 2004) – Source
  3. Very-low-carbohydrate diets and preservation of muscle mass (Manninen, 2006) – Source
  4. Low-Carbohydrate Diets Promote a More Favorable Body Composition Than Low-Fat Diets (Volek et al., 2010) – Source
  5. Effects of Low-Carbohydrate Diets Versus Low-Fat Diets on Metabolic Risk Factors: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials (Hu et al., 2012) – Source
  6. Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. (Bueno et al., 2013) – Source
  7. Evidence that supports the prescription of low-carbohydrate high-fat diets: a narrative review (Noakes and Windt, 2016) – Source
  8. International society of sports nutrition position stand: diets and body composition (Aragon et al., 2017) – Source
  9. Body composition and hormonal responses to a carbohydrate-restricted diet (Volek et al., 2002) – Source
  10. Ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets have no metabolic advantage over nonketogenic low-carbohydrate diets (Johnston et al., 2006) – Source
  11. Effects of Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets: A Randomized Trial (Bazzano et al., 2014) – Source
  12. Adherence to low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets in relation to weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors (Hu et al., 2016) – Source
  13. The effect of an 8-week low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) diet in sub-elite Olympic weightlifters and powerlifters on strength, body composition, mental state and adherence: a pilot case-study (Chatterton et al., 2017) – Source
  14. A Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet Combined with 6-Weeks of Crossfit Training Improves Body Composition and Performance (Gregory et al., 2017) – Source
  15. Fat utilization during exercise: adaptation to a fat-rich diet increases utilization of plasma fatty acids and very low density lipoprotein-triacylglycerol in humans (Helge et al., 2001) – Source
  16. Low-carbohydrate nutrition and metabolism (Westman et al., 2007) – Source
  17. Carbohydrates and exercise performance in non-fasted athletes: A systematic review of studies mimicking real-life (Colombani et al., 2013) – Source
  18. The use of carbohydrates during exercise as an ergogenic aid (Cermak and van Loon, 2013) – Source
  19. Re-Examining High-Fat Diets for Sports Performance: Did We Call the ‘Nail in the Coffin’ Too Soon? (Burke, 2015) – Source
  20. Gluconeogenesis during endurance exercise in cyclists habituated to a long-term low carbohydrate high-fat diet (Webster et al., 2016) – Source
  21. Differential in Maximal Aerobic Capacity by Sex in Collegiate Endurance Athletes Consuming a Marginally Low Carbohydrate Diet (Baranauskas et al., 2017) – Source
  22. Low-Carbohydrate-High-Fat Diet: Can it Help Exercise Performance? (Chang et al., 2017) – Source
  23. Improvement of gastroesophageal reflux disease after initiation of a low-carbohydrate diet: five brief case reports (Yancy et al., 2001) – Source
  24. A Very Low-Carbohydrate Diet Improves Gastroesophageal Reflux and Its Symptoms (Austin et al., 2006) – Source
  25. Systematic review: the effects of conservative and surgical treatment for obesity on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (De Groot et al., 2009) – Source
  26. Dietary carbohydrate intake, insulin resistance and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a pilot study in European- and African-American obese women (Pointer et al., 2016) – Source
  27. A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity (Samaha et al., 2003) – Source
  28. Effect of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Appetite, Blood Glucose Levels, and Insulin Resistance in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes (Boden et al., 2005) – Source
  29. A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet to treat type 2 diabetes (Yancy et al., 2005) – Source
  30. The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (Westman et al., 2008) – Source
  31. A critical review of low-carbohydrate diets in people with Type 2 diabetes (van Wyk et al., 2013) – Source
  32. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: critical review and evidence base (Feinman et al., 2015) – Source
  33. Is there a role for carbohydrate restriction in the treatment and prevention of cancer? (Klement and Kämmerer, 2011) – Source
  34. Low-carbohydrate nutrition and metabolism (Westman et al., 2007) – Source
  35. Vascular effects of a low-carbohydrate high-protein diet (Foo et al., 2009) – Source
  36. Effect of 6-month adherence to a very low carbohydrate diet program (Westman et al., 2002) – Source
  37. Adherence and success in long-term weight loss diets: the dietary intervention randomized controlled trial (DIRECT) (Greenberg et al., 2009) – Source
  38. Carbohydrate restriction with postmeal walking effectively mitigates postprandial hyperglycemia and improves endothelial function in type 2 diabetes (Francois et al., 2018) – Source
  39. Effects of a low carbohydrate diet on energy expenditure during weight loss maintenance: randomized trial (Ebbeling et al., 2018) – Source
  40. Dietary Patterns in Secondary Prevention of Heart Failure: A Systematic Review (Dos Reis Padilha et al., 2018) – Source
  41. Management of Type 1 Diabetes With a Very Low–Carbohydrate Diet (Lennerz et al., 2018) – Source
  42. Outcomes of a Digitally Delivered Low-Carbohydrate Type 2 Diabetes Self-Management Program: 1-Year Results of a Single-Arm Longitudinal Study (Saslow et al., 2018) – Source
  43. The Effect of an 8 Week Prescribed Exercise and Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Body Composition and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Obese Individuals: A Randomised Controlled Trial (Perissiou et al., 2020) – Source
  44. Cardiometabolic risk and effectiveness of the modified Atkins Ketogenic Diet for adult patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsies in a middle-income country (de Souza Neves et al., 2020) – Source
  45. Therapeutic alternative of the ketogenic Mediterranean diet to improve mitochondrial activity in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): A Comprehensive Review (Caplliure-Llopis et al., 2020) – Source
  46. Carbohydrate-restricted Diet and Exercise Increase Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and Cognitive Function: A Randomized Crossover Trial (Gyorkos et al., 2019) – Source
  47. Carbohydrate-restricted Diet and High-intensity Interval Training Exercise Improve Cardio-metabolic and Inflammatory Profiles in Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Crossover Trial (Gyorkos et al., 2019) – Source
  48. A low-carbohydrate protein-rich bedtime snack to control fasting and nocturnal glucose in type 2 diabetes: A randomized trial (Abbie et al, 2020) – Source
  49. Low-carbohydrate-diet scores and the risk of primary open-angle glaucoma: data from three US cohorts (Hanyuda et al., 2020) – Source
  50. Optimum nutritional strategies for cardiovascular disease prevention and rehabilitation (BACPR) (Butler et al., 2020) – Source
  51. Association between a low-carbohydrate diet and sleep status, depression, anxiety, and stress score (Daneshzad et al., 2020) – Source
  52. Changes in blood lipid concentrations associated with changes in intake of dietary saturated fat in the context of a healthy low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet: a secondary analysis of the Diet Intervention Examining The Factors Interacting with Treatment Success (DIETFITS) trial (Shih et al., 2019) – Source 
  53. Low-carbohydrate diet and cardiovascular diseases in Iranian population: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (Farhadnejad et al., 2019) – Source
  54. Mixed methods pilot study of a low-carbohydrate diabetes prevention programme among adults with pre-diabetes in the USA (Hafez et al., 2020) – Source 
  55. The effects of low-carbohydrate diets on cardiovascular risk factors: A meta-analysis (Dong et al., 2020) – Source
  56. Alternate day fasting combined with a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss, weight maintenance, and metabolic disease risk reduction (Kalam et al., 2019) – Source 
  57. The Effect of Low Carbohydrate Diet on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials (Zhang et al., 2019) – Source
  58. A food-based, low-energy, low-carbohydrate diet for people with type 2 diabetes in primary care: A randomized controlled feasibility trial (Morris et al., 2020) – Source
  59. Disentangling High Fat, Low Carb, and Healthy Aging (Brown-Borg, 2017) – Source
  60. Low carbohydrate diets in family practice: what can we learn from an internet-based support group (Feinman et al., 2006) – Source
  61. Low-carbohydrate diets for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes (Hall & Chung, 2018) – Source
  62. Low carbohydrate diets containing soy protein and fish oil slow the growth of established NNK-induced lung tumors (Elisia et al., 2020) – Source
  63. Diets with lower carbohydrate concentrations improve insulin sensitivity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A meta-analysis (Porchia et al., 2020) – Source
  64. Advice to follow a low-carbohydrate diet has a favourable impact on low-grade inflammation in type 2 diabetes compared with advice to follow a low-fat diet (Jonasson et al., 2013) – Source
  65. The low-carbohydrate diet and cardiovascular risk factors: Evidence from epidemiologic studies (Hu and Bazzano, 2014) – Source

Group 3: Studies that show carbs are bad  

  1. Body composition and hormonal responses to a carbohydrate-restricted diet (Volek et al., 2002) – Source
  2. Carbohydrate intake and resistance-based exercise: are current recommendations reflective of actual need (Escobar et al., 2016) – Source
  3. Dietary Carbohydrates Impair Healthspan and Promote Mortality (Ravichandran et al., 2017) – Source
  4. Diets low in carbohydrates for type 2 diabetics. Systematic review (Valenzuela Mencía et al., 2017) – Source
  5. Investigation of the diabetic effects of maternal high-glucose diet on rats. (Ozkan et al., 2018) – Source
  6. Three types of a high-carbohydrate diet are differently associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in Korean adults (Song & Song, 2018) – Source
  7. Relationship between Added Sugars Consumption and Chronic Disease Risk Factors: Current Understanding (Rippie and Angelopoulos, 2016) – Source
  8. Impact of sugar on the body, brain, and behavior (Freeman et al., 2018) – Source
  9. Effect of glycemic index and carbohydrate intake on kidney function in healthy adults (Juraschek  et al., 2016) – Source
  10. Hormonal and metabolic effects of carbohydrate restriction in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (Irizarry et al., 2019) – Source
  11. Dietary carbohydrate restriction improves insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, microvascular function, and cellular adhesion markers in individuals taking statins (Ballard et al., 2013) – Source 
  12. The Carbohydrate-Insulin Model of Obesity: Beyond “Calories In, Calories Out” (Ludwig & Ebbeling, 2018) – Source
  13. The genetic basis of high-carbohydrate and high-monosodium glutamate diet related to the increase of likelihood of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a review (Nathanael etal., 2020) – Source
  14. High-refined carbohydrate diet consumption induces neuroinflammation and anxiety-like behavior in mice (Gomes et al., 2020) – Source
  15. Carbohydrates and cognitive function (Hawkins et al., 2018) – Source
  16. High glycemic index and glycemic load diets as risk factors for insomnia: analyses from the Women’s Health Initiative (Gangwisch et al., 2020) – Source
  17. Effects of low glycemic index/high-fat, high-calorie diet on glycemic control and lipid profiles of children and adolescence with cystic fibrosis: A randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial (Gorji et al., 2020) – Source
  18. Effect of dietary carbohydrate restriction on glycemic control in adults with diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis (Sainsbury et al., 2018) – Source
  19. Glycemic load, dietary fiber, and added sugar and fecundability in 2 preconception cohorts (Willis et al., 2020) – Source
  20. Perspective: A Historical and Scientific Perspective of Sugar and Its Relation with Obesity and Diabetes (Johnson et al., 2017) – Source
  21. Refined carbohydrates, phenotypic plasticity and the obesity epidemic (Bradley, 2019) – Source
  22. Dietary Carbohydrate Constituents Related to Gut Dysbiosis and Health (Seo et al., 2020) – Source 
  23. Carbohydrate restriction improves the features of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome may be defined by the response to carbohydrate restriction (Volek and Feinman, 2005) – Source
  24. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Immune Cells (Gutiérrez et al., 2019) – Source

Group 4: Studies that show fats are good

  1. Evidence that supports the prescription of low-carbohydrate high-fat diets: a narrative review (Noakes and Windt, 2016) – Source
  2. Consuming a hypocaloric high fat low carbohydrate diet for 12 weeks lowers C-reactive protein, and raises serum adiponectin and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in obese subjects (Ruth et al., 2013) – Source
  3. The effect of an 8-week low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) diet in sub-elite Olympic weightlifters and powerlifters on strength, body composition, mental state and adherence: a pilot case-study (Chatterton et al., 2017) – Source
  4. Fat utilization during exercise: adaptation to a fat-rich diet increases utilization of plasma fatty acids and very low density lipoprotein-triacylglycerol in humans (Helge et al., 2001) – Source
  5. Re-Examining High-Fat Diets for Sports Performance: Did We Call the ‘Nail in the Coffin’ Too Soon? (Burke, 2015) – Source
  6. Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study (Dehghan et al., 2017) – Source
  7. A healthy approach to dietary fats: understanding the science and taking action to reduce consumer confusion (Liu et al., 2018) – Source
  8. Comparison of therapeutic effects of omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid and fluoxetine, separately and in combination, in major depressive disorder (Jazayeri et al., 2009) – Source
  9. Dietary fat intake and the risk of coronary heart disease in women (Hu et al., 2007) – Source
  10. Are refined carbohydrates worse than saturated fat? (Hu, 2010) – Source
  11. Serial measures of circulating biomarkers of dairy fat and total and cause-specific mortality in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study (Otto et al., 2018) – Source
  12. Dietary Approaches to the Management of Autism Spectrum Disorders (Hartman & Patel, 2020) – Source
  13. Metabolism of Exogenous D-Beta-Hydroxybutyrate, an Energy Substrate Avidly Consumed by the Heart and Kidney (Cuenoud et al., 2020) – Source
  14. Dietary Fat and the Genetic Risk of Type 2 Diabetes (Carrasquilla et al., 2019) – Source
  15. The Effects of Diets Enriched in Monounsaturated Oleic Acid on the Management and Prevention of Obesity: a Systematic Review of Human Intervention Studies (Tutunchi et al., 2020) – Source
  16. Higher dietary fat quality is associated with lower anxiety score in women: a cross-sectional study (Fatemi et al., 2020) – Source 
  17. Higher Intake of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid and Monounsaturated Fatty Acid is Inversely Associated With AMD (Roh et al., 2020) – Source

Final thoughts

These are just some studies on the low-carb, high-fat, and ketogenic diets. It is also important to mention there are thousands of published studies on this topic and many, many more are still in progress and unpublished. With time and as technology advances, we can find more proof that the ketogenic diet’s benefits will be further cemented.

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Studies and Research on Low Carb High Fat Diet
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